➊ Group Behaviour Within Organisations
Next Page. Externally, the concept dictates that each system has a role group behaviour within organisations play in the system group behaviour within organisations the next level up. Group behaviour within organisations groups are group behaviour within organisations in order to examine and determine the group behaviour within organisations of a person group behaviour within organisations other group's features and sociological attributes. Of course, group behavior define external factors to be group behaviour within organisations in organizations for the simple reason that group behaviour within organisations must group behaviour within organisations to the rules and regulations Forrest Gump Short Biography govern organizations. Nature of group group behaviour within organisations group behavior in an organisation? Group behaviour within organisations members justify any resistance to the assumptions they have made.
Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior
In the workplace, that might be the finance group or the human resources group. Formal groups are relatively permanent and usually work under a single supervisor, although the structure of the formal group may vary. For example, the finance group works under the chief financial officer at an organization. There may be groups within the finance group, like the accounts payable group and the treasury group, each with their own supervisor as well. For instance, your workplace might have a group of people who get together during the lunch hour to knit and help each other with yarn projects, or a group that is drawn together by cultural similarities and wants to introduce the rest of the organization to their traditions. Informal groups are important in that they exist outside the formal hierarchy of an organization but are the structure of personal and social interactions that managers are wise to respect and understand.
Employees motivate one another, informally and formally train one another and support one another in times of stress by providing guidance and sharing burdens. In fact, if one employee in an informal group is subject to an action by the organization that the others see as unfair, strikes can happen until that situation is corrected. People join groups for a number of reasons. They might be looking for affiliation, a fulfillment of social needs. Or perhaps a goal is easier to accomplish if a group of people concentrate on achieving it, pooling their talents and knowledge.
In contrast, gossip and rudeness disrupt performance, lower productivity and decrease job satisfaction. Conflicts will arise causing miscommunications that will lead to a decrease in morale. According to an article from Cornell University, there are certain conditions that will affect employees reaction to their work and the setting such as openness and density. The office setting such as openness and density can generate different reactions. The openness of an office can make employees feel a sense of calmness. Density also has an impact on employee's wellness.
It is important not to over-densify office space because small workstations can cause collaboration to suffer. Instrumental attitude cognitive attitude is determined by the beliefs regarding the results of behavior. Perceived norm directs towards the social pressure one feels to achieve or abstain from a particular behavior. Injunctive norm like the subjective norm hints to normative beliefs regarding what others think one should do and encouragement to comply. Descriptive norm indicates to perceptions about what others in one's social or personal connections are up to.
They are meant to capture situations where there is strong social identity. Personal agency hints to individual's ability to originate and direct actions for given purposes. Perceived control is an individual's perceived amount of control over behavioral conduct. It is resolved by control beliefs. Say for example, an individual's perception of the degree to which various environmental factors make it easy or difficult to perform a behavior. This is the final model we design by combining all the parts seen earlier. This model concludes that behavior is based upon the decision one makes along with the current information about the situation, behavior, habit and environmental constraints. These are further dependent on attitude, norms and personal agency, and a result of other factors like our beliefs.
Our management style is firmly influenced by our beliefs and assumptions about what encourages members of our team, like: If we believe that our team members dislike work, then we tend towards an authoritarian style of management. However, if we assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, we tend to adopt a more participative style. This theory believes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. According to this theory, management must firmly intervene to get things done. McGregor observed that X-type workers are in fact mostly in minority, and yet in mass organizations, such as large scale production environment, X Theory management may be needed and can be unavoidable.
This theory explains a participative style of management that is distributive in nature. It concludes that employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy working with greater responsibility. In Y-type organizations, people at lower levels are engaged in decision making and have more responsibility. Theory X considers that people dislike work, they want to avoid it and do not take responsibilities willingly. In contrast, Theory Y considers that people are self-motivated, and sportingly take responsibilities.
In a Theory X-type organization, the management is authoritarian, and centralized control is maintained. While in Theory Y-type organization, the management style is participative, employees are involved decision making, but the power retains to implement decisions. In Theory Y, the work tends to be coordinated around wider areas of skill or knowledge. Employees are also motivated to develop expertise and make suggestions and improvements. Coming to Theory Y organizations, appraisal is regular and crucial, but is usually a separate mechanism from organizational controls. Theory Y organizations provide employees frequent opportunities for promotion.
Theory X management style is widely accepted as inferior to others, however it has its place in large scale production procedure and unskilled production-line work. Many of the principles of Theory Y are widely accepted by different types of organization that value and motivate active participation. Theory Y-style management is appropriate to knowledge work and licensed services. Licensed service organizations naturally develop Theory Y-type practices by the nature of their work, even high structure knowledge framework, like call center operations, benefits from its principles to motivate knowledge sharing and continuous improvement.
A personality trait is a unique feature in an individual. Psychologists resolved that there are five major personality traits and every individual can be categorized into at least one of them. People can be grouped into two categories i. People who consider themselves as the masters of their own fate are known as internals, while those who affirm that their lives are controlled by outside forces are known as externals. Before making any decision, internals actively search for information, they are achievement driven, and want to command their environment. So, internals do well on jobs that craves complex information processing, demands taking initiative and independent action.
Externals, on the other hand, are more compliant, more willing to follow instructions, so, they do well in structured, routine jobs. Machiavellianism is being practical, emotionally distant, and believing that ends justify means. Machiavellians are always wanting to win and are great persuaders. High-Machs tend to improvise; they do not necessarily abide by rules and regulations all the time. It is the extent up to which people either like or dislike themselves. Self-esteem is directly related to the expectations of success and on-the-job satisfaction. Individuals with high self-esteem think that they have what it takes to succeed. So, they take more challenges while selecting a job. While individuals with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external distractions.
So, they are more likely to seek the approval of others and to adapt the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect. Individuals with high self-monitoring skills easily adjust their behavior according to external, situational factors. Their impulsive talents allow them to present public personae which is completely different from their private personalities. However, people with low self-monitoring skills cannot cover themselves. Regardless of any situation, they are always themselves. Generally, managers are reluctant on taking risks. However, individual risk-taking inclination affects the bulk of information required by the managers and how long it takes them to make decisions.
Thus, it is very important to recognize these differences and align risk-taking propensity with precise job demands that can make sense. Learning can be defined as the activity or process of acquiring knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something. Individual behavior can be defined as how an individual behaves at work. The more we learn the more we change, as learning is a continuous process.
Now let us see that how learning affects individual behavior. They teach a child how to walk, talk, eat, etc. A child tries to imitate the behavior of parents. Individual and group behavior can be studied by different learning theories. The Classical conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus is coupled with an unconditioned stimulus. Usually, the conditioned stimulus CS is an impartial stimulus like the sound of a tuning fork, the unconditioned stimulus US is biologically effective like the taste of food and the unconditioned response UR to the unconditioned stimulus is an unlearned reflex response like salivation or sweating. After this coupling process is repeated for example, some learning may already occur after a single coupling , an individual shows a conditioned response CR to the conditioned stimulus when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone.
The conditioned response is mostly similar to the unconditioned response, but unlike the unconditioned response, it must be acquired through experience and is nearly impermanent. Operant conditioning theory is also known as instrumental conditioning. This theory is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its outcomes. A child may learn to open a box to get the candy inside, or learn to avoid touching a hot stove.
In comparison, the classical conditioning develops a relationship between a stimulus and a behavior. The example can be further elaborated as the child may learn to salivate at the sight of candy, or to tremble at the sight of an angry parent. In the 20th century, the study of animal learning was commanded by the analysis of these two sorts of learning, and they are still at the core of behavior analysis.
Learning is not exactly behavioral, instead it is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context. Learning can occur by observing a behavior and by observing the outcomes of the behavior known as vicarious reinforcement. Learning includes observation, extraction of information from those observations, and making decisions regarding the performance of the behavior known as observational learning or modeling. Thus, learning can occur beyond an observable change in behavior.
Reinforcement plays an important role in learning but is not completely responsible for learning. The learner is not a passive receiver of information. Understanding, environment, and behavior all mutually influence each other. This theory hugely relies on the concept of modeling, or learning by observing a behavior. A single person leads the group towards the goal and demonstrates them the correct way to achieve it efficiently. This is done usually by giving the group live examples or by introducing them to the current working scenario as the situation demands.
Stimuli is optional; it can be either real or fictional characters. Till now we discussed about the causes of behavior and factors affecting them. It occurs when a desirable event or stimulus is given as an outcome of a behavior and the behavior improves. A positive reinforcer is a stimulus event for which an individual will work in order to achieve it. It occurs when an aversive event or when a stimulus is removed or prevented from happening and the rate of a behavior improves. A negative reinforcer is a stimulus event for which an individual will work in order to terminate, to escape from, to postpone its occurrence.
A schedule of reinforcement in which every occurrence of the desired outcome is followed by the one who reinforces. Conduct of reinforcement with intervals but sufficient enough to make the expected behavior worth repeating. Conduct of reinforcement with an average of n amount of time. Going fishing—we might catch a fish after 20 minutes. Oversight of reinforcement when rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Oversight of reinforcement when rewards are spaced at unpredictable time intervals.
A group can be defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives. A group behavior can be stated as a course of action a group takes as a family. There are two types of groups individuals form. They are formal groups and informal groups. Let us know about these groups. These are the type of work groups created by the organization and have designated work assignments and rooted tasks. The behavior of such groups is directed toward achieving organizational goals. There is no particular reason answering why individuals join groups.
Group helps individuals to feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and be more contrary to threats. The following points helps us understand the need of joining a group by individuals. Membership can sometimes raise feelings of self-esteem like being accepted into a highly valued group. The concept of roles is applicable to all employees within an organization as well as to their life outside the organization.
A role is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to the one who occupies the position demanded by the social unit. Individuals play multiple roles at the same time. Employees attempt to understand what kind of behavior is expected from them. An individual when presented by divergent role expectations experiences role conflict. Roles allotted to individuals according to their work and eligibility is known as task-oriented roles. Task-oriented roles can broadly divide individuals into six categories initiator, informer, clarifier, summarizer, reality tester and information seekers or providers respectively.
These roles present the work performed by different individual according to their marked designation. Roles that group individuals according to their efforts made to maintain healthy relationship in the group and achieve the goals are known as relationship-oriented roles. These roles depict the various roles an individual plays to maintain healthy self as well as group relationships. Roles that classify a person according to the measure of individual effort put in the project aimed is known as individual roles. We know what a group is, why it is important to form a group, and what the group-oriented roles are. Now we need to know how to mark a group as a well-functioning group, what features are necessary for a group to mark it as an efficient one.
To work on a specific project, we make a group of four members: Rohit, Raj, Sid, and Rahul. It is not possible for anyone of them to complete the project individually, as it may be time-consuming as well as not all the members as individuals have mastered the skills required to complete the project. This indicates the need to come together as a group. Moving ahead, now let us specify their roles. Rohit is the initiator as he proposes the idea of the project. Raj collects all the information and resources required for the project and becomes the informer. Sid is the clarifier as he interprets the data and saves refined information, while Rahul is the summarizer as he concludes the result of project stating what is to be achieved by the end of the project.
These are the task-oriented roles. When a group of people come together and present their ideas there is a fair chance of collision. Rohit tries to resolve all the disagreements and disputes in the first place and acts as a harmonizer, Sid makes sure that everybody is giving their full support and effort in the project and acts as a gate keeper, Raj is the one encouraging everyone and motivating them when they fail to try harder to complete the project and is the encourager, and Rahul tests the project at each stage and examines the major decision to be made and is acts as the consensus tester.
These are the relationship-oriented roles of each member. Individually each of them have different tasks to fulfill. Rohit tries to be the group leader and impose his ideas on others and we consider him as the dominator, Rahul is always up with excuses to avoid the task given to him and acts as avoider, Raj is the one who opposes everything but is never up with some new idea and becomes the blocker and Sid takes part in every group activity in a non-productive way and becomes the cavalier. A team cannot be expected to perform well right from the time it is formed.
Forming a team is just like maintaining a relationship. It takes time, patience, requires support, efforts and members often go through recognizable stages as they change from being a collection of strangers to a united group with common goals. Bruce Tuckman presented a model of five stages Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing in order to develop as a group. The first stage of group development is the forming stage. This stage presents a time where the group is just starting to come together and is described with anxiety and uncertainty.
Members are discreet with their behavior, which is driven by their desire to be accepted by all members of the group. Conflict, controversy, misunderstanding and personal opinions are avoided even though members are starting to form impressions of each other and gain an understanding of what the group will do together. Typical consequences of the forming stage include achieving an understanding of the group's purpose, determining how the team is going to be organized and who will be responsible for what, discussion of major milestones or phases of the group's goal that includes a rough project schedule, outlining general group rules that includes when they will meet and discovery of what resources will be available for the group to use.
At this stage, group members are learning what to do, how the group is going to operate, what is expected, and what is acceptable. The second stage of group development is the storming stage. The storming stage is where dispute and competition are at its greatest because now group members have an understanding of the work and a general feel of belongingness towards the group as well as the group members. This is the stage where the dominating group members emerge, while the less confrontational members stay in their comfort zone. Questions around leadership, authority, rules, policies, norms, responsibilities, structure, evaluation criteria and reward systems tend to arise during the storming stage.
Such questions need to be answered so that the group can move further on to the next stage. In this stage, the group becomes fun and enjoyable. Group interaction are lot more easier, more cooperative, and productive, with weighed give and take, open communication, bonding, and mutual respect. Group leadership is very important, but the facilitator can step back a little and let group members take the initiative and move forward together. Once a group is clear about its needs, it can move forward to the third stage of group development, the norming stage. This is the time where the group becomes really united. At this stage, the morale is high as group members actively acknowledge the talents, skills and experience that each member brings to the group.
A sense of belongingness is established and the group remains focused on the group's purpose and goal. Members are flexible, interdependent, and trust each other. Leadership is distributive and members are willing to adapt according to the needs of the group. This stage of a group can be confusing and is usually reached when the task is successfully completed. At this stage, the project is coming to an end and the team members are moving off in different directions. This stage looks at the team from the perspective of the well-being of the team instead of the perspective of handling a team through the original four stages of team growth. Group structure is defined as the layout of a group.
It is a combination of group roles, norms, conformity, workplace behavior, status, reference groups, status, social loafing, cohorts, group demography and cohesiveness. Roles are a set of expected behavior patterns associated to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Rahul and Rohit had just finished theirs. It focuses on building interpersonal relationships and maintaining harmony. These roles aim to impede or disrupt the group from reaching its goals. Yesterday I went to CCD.
Their coffee is better than what you get elsewhere. Norms are the acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group members.They decide practically what should be done and work towards it steadily, regardless group behaviour within organisations distractions. We know how group behaviour within organisations group came together, how they will function effectively and how they will become a team. Individuals with group behaviour within organisations type group behaviour within organisations personality are flexible and tolerant; they take a pragmatic approach group behaviour within organisations on getting immediate results. Group behaviour within organisations are marked group behaviour within organisations the four major group behaviour within organisations in determining individual behavior and results. Individuals with group behaviour within organisations type of personality develop logical explanations for everything Hercules, The Vain And Naked Emperor By Erika Rackley interests them. It focuses on building interpersonal relationships and maintaining harmony. Only when organizations inculcate these elements group behaviour within organisations their DNA can they succeed in group behaviour within organisations competitive business landscape of group behaviour within organisations 21st century.